Comparatives Study of Production Biodiesel from Soybean oil and Jatropha Curcas Seeds Oil

  • Habibu Uthman Membrane Research Unit (MRU), Block L-01, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), International Campus, Jalan Semarak, 54100 WP, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria.
  • Abdulkareem A. Saka Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria
Keywords: Soybean oil, Jatropha oil, biodiesel, petroleum diesel, properties

Abstract

This study involves transesterification of soybean and Jatropha oils with methanol, using sodium hydroxide as the catalyst to produced biodiesel as an alternative to petroleum diesel. This work investigates the effects of temperature and time on the production of biodiesel from the feed stocks employed. Also investigated are the effects of particle size and temperature on the production of oil from the Jatropha seed. The produced biodiesels from soybean and Jatropha oil were characterised to determine their suitability as a replacement for the petrol diesel. Results obtained shows that both temperature and time influence the production of biodiesel from the soybean and Jatropha oil. Analyses of the produced biodiesels also indicates that the properties of the biodiesels produced shows that the density, refractive index, moisture content, viscosity, flash point, cetane number, pour point and sulphur content of the biodiesel produced from soybean oil are 0.882g/cm3, 1.486, 0.018%, 6.24cP, 148°C, 51.3, –8.2 and 0.004% respectively. While the corresponding values of these properties for the biodiesel produced from Jatropha oil are 0.861g/cm3, 1.532, 0.013%, 2.8cP, 89°C, 49.5, –7.9 and 0.001%. It can be inferred from the results on the properties of biodiesel that the properties of the produced biodiesels from soybean and Jatropha oils fit well within the set limits for the standard biodiesel and fossil diesel, the biodiesel can therefore be used as a replacement for the petrol diesel. Results of various analyses conducted on the biodiesels produced from soybean and Jatropha oil shows that biodiesel of good qualities can also be produced from the Jatropha oil and can be used as a substitute for production of biodiesel from soybean which is edible oil.

Author Biographies

Habibu Uthman, Membrane Research Unit (MRU), Block L-01, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), International Campus, Jalan Semarak, 54100 WP, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria.

Habibu Uthman, born 1975 in Erin-Ile, Oyun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria, received his master education at Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State Nigeria in Process Analysis and Development in 2002. He is presently on his PhD programme at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in Fuel Cell Technology (High temperature proton exchange membrane for fuel cell application). He started his lecturing career at University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria from 2004 to 2004 and joined Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria from 2006 to date. His activities are mainly focused on renewable energy and fuel cell technology.

Membrane Research Unit (MRU), Block L-01, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), International Campus, Jalan Semarak, 54100 WP, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria.

Abdulkareem A. Saka, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria

Abdulkareem A. Saka obtained B.Eng and M.Eng in Chemical Engineering from the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. In 2010, he earned a PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand; Johannesburg South Africa specialized in Nanotechnology/fuel cell technology. His research interests are nanotechnology (Carbon nanomaterial), fuel cell technology, environmental engineering, membrane synthesis and process development and evaluation.

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB65 Minna, Niger State. Nigeria. kasaka2003@yahoo.com

References

Canakci, M., (2007). The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks.

Bioresour. Tech., 98 (1), Pp.183-190.

Canakci, M.; van Gerpen, J.H., (2001). A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from

high free fatty acid feedstocks. American Society of Agricultural Engineers,

ASAE Annual International Meeting, Sacramento, California, USA, July 30-August

, 2001, Paper Number: 016049.

Kulkarni, M. G.; Dalai, A.K., (2006). Waste cooking oil – an economical source for biodiesel: A review. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45 (9), Pp. 2901–2913.

Abdulkareem. A.S, Odigure. J.O. and Kuranga. M.B. 2010: Production and

Characterization of Bio-Fuel from Coconut oil. J. of Energy Source Part A

:106-114.

Adeniyi, O.D., Kovo, A.S., Abdulkareem, A.S. and C. Chukwudozie. C. 2007:

Ethanol Fuel Production from Cassava as a Substitute for Gasoline. J. Of Dispersion

and Technology. 28(4): 501-504.

Silas, B. T. (2008) “Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Jatropha

curcas,” an unpublished B.Eng., Thesis submitted to the Department of Chemical

Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria,

Pp. 7-11

Bobboi, U.; Usman, A.M.; Kawuyo, U.K. (2007) “Advances in Biodiesel Production,

Use and Quality Assessment,” University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, Pp.1-4.

Agarwal, A.K. and Das, L.M. 2001: Biodiesel development and characterization

for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. J. Engineering Gas Turbines

Power 123: 440-447

Aghan D. 2005: Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and

non catalytic supercritical methanol tranestarification methods. J. Progress in

energy and combustion 31:406-487.

Attanatho, L., Magmee, S. and Jenovanit, P. 2004: Factor affecting the synthesis

of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil. The joint international conference on

suitable energy and environment. 1-3 December, Hua Hin, Thailand

Darnoko, D. and Cheryan, M. 2000: Kinetics of palm oil transesterification in a

batch reactor. J.Am. Oil Soc. Chem 63: 1375-1380

Bernard, E., Beater, L., Boucher, C. and Stencil, B.A. 2007: Continuous flow preparation

of biodiesel using microwave heating. J. Energy Fuel 21(3):1777-1781

Reinhard, K.H. (1993) “Vegetable oil as Fuel for Diesel Engines,” Chapter 46, Pp.5

Eneche, J. (2008) “Production of B60 Bio-diesel Fuel Grade from Physic nut (Jatropha

curcas),” Pp. 15-16, 31-32.

Zhang, Y., Dube, M.A., Mclean, D.D. and Katis, M.E. 2003: Biodiesel production

from waste cooking oil: 2 Economic assessment and sensitivity analyses. J.

Bioresources technology 90:229-240.

Section
Articles