Investigation of NavIC and GPS Multipath Phase for Soil Moisture Studies

  • Sushant Shekhar Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7817-6538
  • Rishi Prakash Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6471-5935
  • Anurag Vidyarthi Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India
Keywords: Multipath Phase, GNSS, GPS, NavIC, Soil Moisture.

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the multipath phase of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and volumetric moisture content (VMC) of soil. The carrier to noise ratio (C/No) data of multipath signals at two different frequencies has been analyzed. The first one is India’s NavIC L5 frequency (∼1176 MHz) and the second one is GPS L1 frequency (∼1575 MHz). The received multipath signals are highly dependent on dielectric value of soil and the elevation angle of satellite. The relationship drawn for the NavIC and GPS C/No data is based on multipath phase analysis and in situ soil moisture. The values of correlation coefficient observed between these parameters were 0.9 and 0.63 for NavIC and GPS multipath signal respectively. The result from both GNSS shows good sensitivity and could be used to estimate the soil moisture for agricultural land.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sushant Shekhar, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India

Sushant Shekhar is working as a Senior Research Fellow at the Propagation Research Lab of the Electronics & Communication Engineering Dept., Graphic Era Deemed to be university in a project funded by Space Applications Centre (SAC), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad. He has got around 6 years of experience in academics and industry. He has completed his M.Tech from JIIT Noida, India in 2016 and currently perusing his PhD from Graphic Era Deemed to be university. He has authored and co-authored several research papers in SCI/SCOPUS/Peer Reviewed Journals and IEEE/Springer Conference proceedings. He is the member of IEEE and worked as a TPC member for various reputed conferences. He has multi-discipline/cross disciplined ability in field of teaching and research.

Rishi Prakash, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India

Rishi Prakash did his Ph.D. from Dept. of ECE, IIT Roorkee. Currently he is serving as Associate Professor in Dept of ECE, GEU, Dehradun, India. His research interests are soil parameter retrieval with microwave remote sensing. He has published many research papers in this field. Currently he is working on non-navigational applications of GNSS. He is closely associated with Indian Space Research Organization for developing soil moisture retrieval model with NavIC constellation under different field conditions.

Anurag Vidyarthi, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, India

Anurag Vidyarthi obtained B.Sc. degree from MJPR University, Bareilly, India, in 2005 and M.Sc. degree from BU Bhopal, India, in 2007. He receives M.Tech. and Ph.D. degree from Graphic Era University, India, in 2010 and 2014 respectively. Presently he is associated with Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India. His areas of interest are rain attenuation, fade mitigation techniques, ionospheric effects on the navigation system, and applications of Navigational satellite data.

References

Calabia, A., Molina, I., & Jin, S. (2020). Soil Moisture Content from GNSS reflectometry using dielectric permittivity from fresnel reflection coefficients. Remote Sensing, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/RS12010122

Chamoli, V., Prakash, R., Vidyarthi, A., & Ray, A. (2018). Sensitivity of NavIC signal for soil moisture variation. 2017 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies, ICETCCT 2017, 2018–January, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICETCCT.2017.8280318

Chamoli, V., Prakash, R., Vidyarthi, A., & Ray, A. (2020). Capability of NavIC, an Indian GNSS Constellation, for Retrieval of Surface Soil Moisture. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, 106(November), 255–270.

Chew, C., Small, E. E., & Larson, K. M. (2016). An algorithm for soil moisture estimation using GPS-interferometric reflectometry for bare and vegetated soil. GPS Solutions, 20(3), 525–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-015-0462-4

El Hajj, M., Baghdadi, N., Bazzi, H., & Zribi, M. (2019). Penetration analysis of SAR signals in the C and L bands for wheat, maize, and grasslands. Remote Sensing, 11(1), 22–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11010031

Eroglu, O., Kurum, M., & Ball, J. (2019). Response of GNSS-R on Dynamic Vegetated Terrain Conditions. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 12(5), 1599–1611. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2910565

Han, M., Zhu, Y., Yang, D., Hong, X., & Song, S. (2018). A semi-empirical SNR model for soil moisture retrieval using GNSS SNR data. Remote Sensing, 10(2), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020280

Katzberg, S. J., Torres, O., Grant, M. S., & Masters, D. (2006). Utilizing calibrated GPS reflected signals to estimate soil reflectivity and dielectric constant: Results from SMEX02. Remote Sensing of Environment, 100(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.09.015

Larson, K. M., Braun, J. J., Small, E. E., Zavorotny, V. U., Gutmann, E. D., & Bilich, A. L. (2010). GPS Multipath and Its Relation to Near-Surface Soil Moisture Content. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 3(1), 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2033612

Rodriguez-Alvarez, N., Bosch-Lluis, X., Camps, A., Aguasca, A., Vall-Llossera, M., Valencia, E., Ramos-Perez, I., & Park, H. (2011). Review of crop growth and soil moisture monitoring from a ground-based instrument implementing the Interference Pattern GNSS-R Technique. Radio Science, 46(5), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011RS004680

Shekhar, S., Prakash, R., Vidyarthi, A., & Pandey, D. K. (2020). Sensitivity Analysis of Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) Derived Multipath Phase towards Surface Soil Moisture over Agricultural Land. 2020 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication, ICSC 2020, 138–142. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSC48311.2020.9182714

Wan, W., Larson, K. M., Small, E. E., Chew, C. C., & Braun, J. J. (2015). Using geodetic GPS receivers to measure vegetation water content. GPS Solutions, 19(2), 237–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-014-0383-7

Yang, T., Wan, W., Chen, X., Chu, T., & Hong, Y. (2017). Using BDS SNR observations to measure near-surface soil moisture fluctuations: Results from low vegetated surface. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 14(8), 1308–1312. https://doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2017.2710083

Zavorotny, V. U., Larson, K. M., Braun, J. J., Small, E. E., Gutmann, E. D., & Bilich, A. L. (2010). A Physical Model for GPS Multipath Caused by Land Reflections: Toward Bare Soil Moisture Retrievals. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 3(1), 100–110. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2033608

Zhang, S., Roussel, N., Boniface, K., Cuong Ha, M., Frappart, F., Darrozes, J., Baup, F., & Calvet, J. C. (2017). Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21(9), 4767–4784. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-21-4767-2017

Zhang, S., Roussel, N., Boniface, K., Ha, M. C., Frappart, F., Darrozes, J., Baup, F., & Calvet, J.-C. (2017). Use of GNSS SNR data to retrieve soil moisture and vegetation variables over a wheat crop. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, March, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2017-152

Published
2021-07-04
Section
Articles