Asta-Ja Framework: A Peaceful Approach to Food, Water, Climate, and Environmental Security Coupled with Sustainable Economic Development and Social Inclusion in Nepal

  • Durga D Poudel The Founder of the Asta-Ja Framework, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA
Keywords: Asta-Ja, food and water security, climate and environmental security, economic development, Nepal Vision 2040, social inclusion, Nepal

Abstract

Sustainable conservation, development, and utilization of natural and human resources is necessary for accelerated economic growth and fast-paced socio-economic transformation of Nepal. Asta-Ja Framework, which is a theoretically grounded grassroots based peaceful and self-reliant planning and development approach, offers practical strategies for sustainable conservation and development of natural and human resources enhancing food, water, climate, and environmental security, accelerated economic growth, and socio-economic transformation of Nepal. Asta-Ja includes interconnected eight resources in Nepali letter, Ja, – Jal (water), Jamin (land), Jungle (forest), Jadibuti (medicinal and aromatic plants), Janashakti (manpower), Janawar (animal), Jarajuri (crop plants) and Jalabayu (climate). Asta-Ja Framework is a unifying framework for planning and resources development and has a strong footing on science, business, and eastern philosophy. While providing practical guidelines for achieving food, water, climate and environmental security, this article presents Nepal Vision 2040, which is developed considering challenges that Nepal is currently facing and its available Asta-Ja resources, envisioning that Nepal’s economic development reaching at the par of developed nations by 2040. Key strategic sectors identified in Nepal Vision 2040 include smallholder mixed-farming system, agro-jadibuti industrialization, protection of drinking water sources, climate change adaptation, environmental pollution control, conservation of natural resources, infrastructure, tourism, renewable energy, alleviation of inequalities, and good governance. This article demonstrates strategies for addressing social discrimination and inequalities through the process of Asta-Ja community capacity-building and self-reliant development. Ecological balance of Asta-Ja resources is necessary for sustainable natural resources, economic development, and community resiliency. The Government of Nepal is suggested to adopt Asta-Ja Framework as its national planning and development framework for sustainable economic growth and fast-paced socio-economic transformation of the country.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Durga D Poudel, The Founder of the Asta-Ja Framework, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA

Durga D. Poudel is a Professor of Environmental Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, USA. He received his B.Sc. degree in Agriculture from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, M.Sc. in Natural Resource Development and Management from Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, and Ph.D. in Soil Science from the University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Dr. Poudel’s professional experience consists of Research Fellow at Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taiwan; Graduate Research Assistant in Sustainable Agricultural and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; and Visiting Research Scholar, University of California Davis, USA. Dr. Poudel joined the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA, as an Assistant Professor of Soil Science in August 2000. Dr. Poudel is a Board of Regents Professor in Applied Life Sciences at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. As an Associate Editor, Dr. Poudel has been serving the Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment journal since 2020. He is the Founder of Asta-Ja Framework.

References

ADB (Asian Development Bank), 2010. Overview of gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal, Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Available at: https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/32237/cga-nep-2010.pdf

Adhikari, A.P., 2019. Urban Development in Nepal, Asta-Ja Policy Briefs, 1(1), page 2, December, Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Asta-Ja-Policy-Briefs-Volume-1-Issue-1.pdf

Adhikari, D.R., 2020. Tourism and Economic Development in Nepal, Asta-Ja Policy Briefs, 2(1), page 6–7, April, Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Asta-Ja-Policy-Briefs-Volume-2-Issue-1-1.pdf

Bannister, T., 2016. Mapping Geohazards in the Churia Region of Nepal: An Application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems, A Thesis Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geology, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. Available at: http://nebula.wsimg.com/6e2e98ad77014a586a9ff5bee7bc5abb?AccessKeyId=75D28E4B1D9BAA4EDA81&disposition=0&alloworigin=1, Accessed on 3/12/2017.

Bajracharya, T.R., Acharya, S., and Ale, B.B., 2011. Changing Climatic Paramters and its Possible Impacts in Hydropower Generation in Nepal (A Case Study on Gandaki River Basin), Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 8(1): 160–173. Available at: https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JIE/article/view/5108

Bennett, J., 2016. A Global Warming Primer: Answering Your Questions about The Science, the Consequences, and the Solutions, Big Kid Science, Boulder, CO, USA. ISBN: 978-1-937548-78-0.

Bhandari, S., 2002. Geography of Nepal. Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu, Nepal. (in Nepali).

Bhandari, M.P., 2012. Environmental Performance and Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Case Study of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, “Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management” Series: Climate Change Management (pp 149–167), Springer, New York / Heidelberg, ISBN 978-3-642-31109-3

Bhandari, M.P., 2018. The Problems and Consequences of the Biodiversity Conservation: A Case Study from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. SocioEconomic Challenges, 2(1), 6–20. http://armgpublishing.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/files/sec/volume-2-issue-1/Medani%20P.%20Bhandari_SEC_1_2018.pdf

Bhandari, M.P., 2019a. Sustainable Development: Is This Paradigm The Remedy of All Challenges? Does Its Goals Capture The Essence of Real Development and Sustainability? With Reference to Discourses, Creativeness, Boundaries and Institutional Architecture, SocioEconomic Challenges, 3(4): 97–128, https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.3(4).97-128.2019 Available at: https://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/bitstream-download/123456789/76484/1/Bhandari_Sustainable_Development.pdf;jsessionid=310272449BAC936A6BAAEDBDC26FC2CB

Bhandari, M.P. 2019b. “Bashudaiva Kutumbakkam”- The entire world is our home and all living beings are our relatives. Why we need to worry about climate change, with reference to pollution problems in the major cities of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Advances in Agriculture and Environmental Science, 2(1): 8–35. DOI: 10.30881/aaeoa.00019. Available at http://epa.oszk.hu/03500/03513/00003/pdf/EPA03513_aaeoa_2019_1_008-035.pdf

Bhandari, M.P. 2019c. Live and let other live- the harmony with nature /living beings-in reference to sustainable development (SD)- is contemporary world’s economic and social phenomena is favorable for the sustainability of the planet in reference to India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan? Adv Agr Environ Sci. (2019);2(2): 37–57. DOI: 10.30881/aaeoa.00020

Bhandari, M.P., 2020. Getting the Climate Science Facts Right: The Role of the IPCC, River Publishers, River Publishers, Denmark/the Netherlands – ISBN: 9788770221863 e-ISBN: 9788770221856

Bhandari, M.P., and Hanna, S., (Editors), 2021. Inequality-The Unbeatbale Challenge, River Publishers Series in Chemical, Environmental, and Energy Engineering, ISBN: 978-87-7022-623-3 e-ISBN: 978-87-7022-622-6 [In Press]

Bhattarai, L.K., 2017. Nepalese Civilization: Past and Present-Democratic Movement and Developmental Model, Bidhyarthi Pustak Bhandar, Bhotahiti, Kathmandu, Nepal (In Nepali Language).

Black, L., 2003. ‘Critical review of the capacity-building literature and discourse’, Development in Practice, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 116–120.

Bhuju, U.R., Shakya, P.R., Basnet, T.B., and Shrestha, S., 2007. Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book: Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Government of Nepal (GoN), Kathmandu, Nepal.

Carson, R., 1962. Silent Spring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, USA.

CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics), 2016. 2015 Statistical Year Book Nepal, Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Chapagain, D. P., 2001. Nepal: Land and Agriculture. World Conservation (IUCN) Nepal. National Strategies for Sustainable Development. Available at: http://www.nssd.net/country/nepal/nep02.htm.

Chapagain, N., 2017. “Sustayeko Jalabidhut Bikash” Setopati, November 4, 2017. Available at https://setopati.com/opinion/100826. Accessed on Nov. 4, 2017.

Colla, G., Mitchell, J.P., Joice, B.A., Huyck, L.M., Wallender, W.W., Temple, S.R., Hsiao, T.C., and Poudel, D.D., 2000. Soil physical properties, tomato yield and quality in alternative cropping systems. Agronomy Journal 92:924–932.

Colla, G., Mitchell, J.P., Poudel, D.D., and Temple, S.R., 2002. Changes of tomato yield and fruit elemental composition in conventional, low input, and organic systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 20(2):53–67.

Corwin, H., Eddings, K., Bailey, G., Braun, A., Mann, A., Gomez, V., Heafner, H., Faulk, W., Immel, L., Hingdon, A., Stelly, B., Broussard, B.N., Willis, L., Martin, T.C., Mizelle, T.J., Baker, A.J., Duex, T., and Poudel, D.D., 2019a. Enriching college students through study abroad: A case of Nepal Field Experience Part 1, ASEJ 23(4):24–29. DOI:10.5604/01.3001.0013.6832 (online)

Corwin, H., Eddings, K., Bailey, G., Braun, A., Mann, A., Gomez, V., Heafner, H., Faulk, W., Immel, L., Hingdon, A., Stelly, B., Broussard, B.N., Willis, L., Martin, T.C., Mizelle, T.J., Baker, A.J., Duex, T., and Poudel, D.D., 2019b. Enriching college students through study abroad: A case of Nepal Field Experience Part 2, ASEJ 23(4):30–37. DOI:10.5604/01.3001.0013.6850 (online)

Corwin, H., Eddings, K., Bailey, G., Braun, A., Mann, A., Gomez, V., Heafner, H., Faulk, W., Immel, L., Hingdon, A., Stelly, B., Broussard, B.N., Willis, L., Martin, T.C., Mizelle, T.J., Baker, A.J., Duex, T., and Poudel, D.D., 2019c. Enriching college students through study abroad: A case of Nepal Field Experience Part 3, ASEJ 23(4):38–44. DOI:10.5604/01.3001.0013.6852 (online)

Das, B., Bhave, P.V., Sapkota, A., and Byanju, R.M., 2018. Estimating emissions from open burning of municipal solid waste in municipalities of Nepal. Waste Management, 79: 481–490. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.08.013.

Devkota, S., 2006. Yarsagumba [Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.]|Traditional Utilization in Dolpa District, Western Nepal, Our Nature, 4:48–52.

Devkota, D.C., and Bhattarai, T.N., 2012. Impact of climate change on development: Challenges and opportunities, Nepal Intellectual Council Journal, 1(1):27–40.

Duquesne, I., 2011. Nepal: Zone of Peace, Bhrikuti Academic Publications, Kathmandu, Nepal. 398 pages.

Duquesne, I., 2013. Eight Ja crusade for economic growth and Nirdhan Bank, Telegraphnepal. Available at: http://www.telegraphnepal.com/national/2013-01-03/nepal:-eight-ja-crusade-for-economic-growth-and-nirdhan-bank accessed on 3/3/2017.

Gautam, K.H., 2006. Forestry, politicians and power – perspectives from Nepal’s forest policy. Forest Policy and Economics, 8:175–182.

Ghimire, M., and Khadka, U.R., 2020. Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Tourism and Hospitality Sector of Nepal, pp. 101–116, In: In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p. Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/COVID-19-ASTA-JA-BOOK-SERIES-2020.pdf

Government of Nepal, Ministry of Physical Planning and Works., 2005. National Drinking Water Quality Standards, 2062 and National Drinking Water Quality Standard Implementation Guideline,2062 Year: 2063 (BS) Singhadurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Available at https://nepalindata.com/resource/national-drinking-water-quality-standards-2005-implementation-directives-national-drinking-water-quality-standards-2005/ (Accessed on March 5, 2020).

Gurung, A., Karki, R., and Bista, R., 2011. Community-based Forest Management in Nepal: Opportunities and Challenges, Resources and Environment, 1(1):26–31.

ICIMOD., 2015. Reviving the dying springs: Reinforcing social development and economic growth in the midhills of Nepal. Issue Brief, February 2015. Kathmandu, Nepal:ICIMOD.

IPCC., 2007. Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Quin D, Manning M, Chen X, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor HL, Miller M (eds) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–996.

IPCC., 2014. Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Geneva.

IPCC., 2018. IPCC Chapter 3: Impacts of 1.5∘

C global warming on natural and human systems. In: Global Warming of 1.5∘

C. Special Report of the IPCC, Geneva.

Ikerd, J., 2015. Sustaining the sustainable agriculture movement, Available at http://web.missouri.edu/~ikerdj/papers/Virginia%20VBFA%20Sustaining%20SA.htm, Accessed on April 30, 2021.

Jansen, H.G.P., Midmore, D.J., and Poudel, D.D., 1995. Sustainable peri-urban vegetable production and natural resources management in Nepal, Journal for Farming Systems Research-Extension, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 85–107.

Jha, H.B., 2020. Nepal’s FDI Challenges, ORF Research, Available at: https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/nepals-fdi-challenges/#:~:text=FDI%20in%20Nepal’s%20tourism%20sector,percent%20of%20the%20country’s%20GDP.&text=Some%20of%20these%20sectors%20are,work%20in%20joint%20venture%20firms.

Joshi, K., and Khanal, K., 2020. Economic impacts of Covid-19: Global and South Asian Perspectives, pp. 128-150, In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p. Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/COVID-19-ASTA-JA-BOOK-SERIES-2020.pdf

Khadka, U.R., and Poudel, D.D., 2020. Remote Delivery in Higher Education Following the Covid-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned, pp. 70–77, In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p. Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/COVID-19-ASTA-JA-BOOK-SERIES-2020.pdf

Kafle, M. R., 2008. Electric Power in Nepal: History, Experiences & possibilities. 2007 IEEE Conference on the History of Electric Power May 2, 2008 130-139. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4510261&isnumber=4510249.

Kandel, H., and Aryal, A., 2020. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Air Pollution in Kathmandu and Pokhara Valleys, pp. 89-100, In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p.

Karna, R.D., 2020. No wealth, poor health: Socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on marginal communities of Nepal, pp. 117–127, In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p.

Kumar, R., 2020. Nepal agro imports at all time high: Despite lessons of COVID-19 lockdown, country not likely to be able to feed itself anytime soon, Nepali Times, Published on August 2, 2020, Available at: https://www.nepalitimes.com/latest/nepal-agro-imports-at-all-time-high/#:~:text=Even%20crops%20like%20rice%2C%20dal,of%20vegetables%2C%20mainly%20from%20India.

Larsen, H.O, and Olsen, C.S., 2007. Unsustainable collection and unfair trade? Uncovering and assessing assumptions regarding Central Himalayan medicinal plant conservation, Biodivers Conserv, 16:1679-1697. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-006-9039-4.

Larsen, H.O, and Smith, P.D., 2004. Stakeholder Perspectives on Commercial Medicinal Plant Collection in Nepal: Poverty and Resource Degradation, Mountain Research and Development, 24(2):241–248.

Leitner Center, 2011. Land is Life, Land is Power: Landlessness, Exclusion, and Deprivation in Nepal, Leitner Center for International Law and Justice at Fordham Law School, New York City, New York, USA. Available at: http://www.leitnercenter.org/files/Crowley%20Program/2011%20Leitner%20Nepal%20Report%20v2.pdf

Merz, J., Nakarmi, G., and Weingartner, R., 2003. Potential solutions to water scarcity in the rural watersheds of Nepal’s Middle Mountains. Mountain Research and Development 23(1):14–18.

Midmore, D.J., and Poudel, D.D., 1996. Asian vegetable production systems for the future. Agricultural Systems 50: 51–64.

Midmore, D.J., Poudel, D.D., and Nissen, T.M, 1997. Inducing change among vegetable farmers in environmentally sensitive ecosystems: the process and some practice in the Philippines. In: John D. Smith Memorial Colloquium-process of community change, 31 Oct – 1 Nov, Queensland, Australia. pp. 215–222.

Midmore, D.J., Poudel, D.D., and Nissen, T.M., 1999. How will medium term agricultural sustainability in the Philippine highlands be affected by induced reductions in commodity prices for annual crops, by adoption of technologies that reduce erosion, and by combinations of the two? In: Environmental Services and Land Use Change, Bridging the Gap between Policy and Research in Southeast Asia. 30 May – 2 June, ICRAF Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Midmore, D.J., Jansen, H.G.P., Dumsday, R.G., Azmi, A.A., Poudel, D.D., Valayasia, S., Huang, J., Radzali, M. M., Fuad, N., Samah, A. B., Syed, A.R., and Nazlin, A., 1995. Technical and economic aspects of soil conservation among vegetable growers in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In: Third Wye International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Management in Sustainable Agriculture, H.F. Cook and H.C. Lee (Eds), Wye College Press, Ashford. pp. 387–398.

Mitra, A.P., and Sharma, C., 2002. Indian aerosols: present status, Chemosphere, 49(9):1175–1190. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045653502002473?via%3Dihub

MoAD (Ministry of Agricultural Development)., 2014. Agricultural Development Strategy (ADS) 2015–2035, Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

MoEN (Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation)., 2018. Water Induced Disaster Management, Government of Nepal, Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation, Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal, Available at http://dwidm.gov.np/, Accessed on July 12, 2018.

MoF (Ministry of Finance)., 2017. “Economic Survey, Fiscal Year 2016/17” Ministry of Finance, Government of Nepal, Singh Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Available at: http://www.mof.gov.np/uploads/document/file/Economic%20Survey%20English%20-%202016-17_20170713052055.pdf, Accessed on November 30, 2017.

MoFE (Ministry of Forests an Environment)., 2018. Programs and Projects, Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Environment, Singhdurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal, Available at http://mfsc.gov.np/content.php?id=277, Accessed on July 12, 2018.

Moktan, P.L., and Poudel, D.D., 2020. Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Nepalese Agriculture, pp. 61–69, In: B. Sharma and A.P. Adhikari (Eds), Covid-19 Pandemic and Nepal: Issues and Perspectives, Asta-Ja RDC and Asta-Ja USA, ISBN 78-9937-0-8011-8, Sopan Press Pvt. Ltd, Dillibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. 159p. Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/COVID-19-ASTA-JA-BOOK-SERIES-2020.pdf

Montague, P., and Pellerano, M.B., 2014. History of the US Environmental Movement (Revised 10 January, 2012), pp 918-943, In: P. Wexler (Editor), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), ISBN 978-0-12-386455-0, Elsevier Inc.

National Research Council., 1993. Sustainable Agriculture in the Humid Tropics. National Academy Press: Washington.

NDHS (National Demographic Health Survey)., 2011. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011: Key Findings. Kathmandu, Nepal, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Ministry of Health and Population, New ERA and ICF International.

NPC (National Planning Commission)., 1995. Nepal Agriculture Perspective Plan 1995/96 – 2014/15, Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal, Available at http://lib.icimod.org/record/4168/files/APROSC%20Nepalagricultureperspectiveplan630AGN.pdf, Accessed on July 16, 2018.

NPC (National Planning Commission)., 2013. National Sample Census of Agriculture Nepal 2011/12, Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal.

NPC (National Planning Commission)., 2021. Human Development Report 2020. Available at: https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/NHDR_2020_-_Final_-_TheSquare_compressed_final1.pdf

Nepal Rastra Bank., 2018. A Survey Report on Foreign Direct Investment in Nepal, Nepal Rastra Bank, Research Department, Kathmandu, Nepal. Available at: https://www.nrb.org.np/contents/uploads/2020/04/Study_Reports-A_Survey_Report_on_Foreign_Direct_Investment_in_Nepal.pdf

Nepal, S., 2020. Tourism in Nepal after Covid-19. Asta-Ja Policy Briefs, 2(1), page 4-5, April, Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Asta-Ja-Policy-Briefs-Volume-2-Issue-1-1.pdf

Neupane, K., 2020. Tourism in Nepal: Emerging Possibilities. Asta-Ja Policy Briefs, 2(1), page 2- 3, April, http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Asta-Ja-Policy-Briefs-Volume-2-Issue-1-1.pdf

Olsen, C.S., and Larsen, H.O., 2003. Alpine Medicinal Plant Trade and Himalayan Mountain Livelihood Strategies, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 169, No. 3, pp. 243–254.

Olsen, C.S., 2005a. Trade and Conservation of Himalayan Medicinal Plants: Nardostachys grandiflora DC. and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong, Biological Conservation, 125:505–514.

Olsen, C.S., 2005b. Valuation of Commercial Central Himalayan Medicinal Plants. Ambio, 34(8): 607–610.

Olsen, C.S., and Larsen, H.O., 2003. Alpine Medicinal Plant Trade and Himalayan Mountain Livelihood Strategies, The Geographical Journal, 169(3): 243–254.

Porter, M. E., 1998. The Competitive Advantage of Nations: with a new introduction, The Free Press, New York, U.S.A.

Poudel, D.D., 1991. Sustainable agroforestry development: the challenges in the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal. In: International Workshop on Conservation and Sustainable Development, Apsit Eiumunoh (ed), Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 163–172.

Poudel, D.D., 2004. Failed agricultural initiatives, The Kathmandu Post, Published on December 19, 2004.

Poudel, D.D., 2008. Management of Eight ‘Ja’ for Economic Development in Nepal. Journal of Comparative International Management, 11(1): 15–27.

Poudel, D.D., 2009. The Asta-Ja Environmental and Natural Resources Policy Framework (Asta-Ja ENRPF) for Sustainable Development in Nepal. Journal of Comparative International Management, 12(2): 49–71.

Poudel, D.D., 2011. A strategic framework for environmental and sustainable development in Nepal. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 10(1):48–61.

Poudel, D.D., 2012a. The Asta-Ja Management Capacity-building Framework for Sustainable Development in Nepal, International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 334–352.

Poudel, D.D., 2012b. Devastation of Churia: Geological, hydrological and socio-economic dimensions, Telegraphnepal, November 1, 2012. Available at: http://www.telegraphnepal.com/national/2012-11-01/nepal:-devastation-of-churia.html, Accessed on 3/12/2017.

Poudel, D.D., 2015. Factors associated with farm-level variation, and farmers’ perception and climate change adaptation in smallholder mixed-farming livestock production system in Nepal, Int. J. Environmental and Sustainable Development 14(3): 231–257.

Poudel, D.D., 2016a. Management of Asta-Ja System, Journal of Comparative International Management, 19(2):19–40.

Poudel, D.D., 2016b. Surface Water Quality Monitoring of an Agricultural Watershed for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 71(4):310–326.

Poudel, D.D., 2016c. Rebuilding coupled with Sustainable Land Use, Food Security, and Agri-business for Community Resiliency in the Gurkha Earthquake Devastated Region in Nepal, International Workshop on Gurkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal. 24–25 April, 2016, Kathmandu, Nepal. Available at: http://www.astajardcnepal.org/news.html

Poudel, D.D., 2018a. Management of Cooperatives Focusing on Asta-Ja and Globalization, Journal of Comparative International Management, 21(1):77–84.

Poudel, D.D., 2018b. Restructuring National Planning Commission Focusing on Asta-Ja and Nepal Vision 2040, Asian Profile, 46(2):151–167.

Poudel, D.D., 2019a. Agricultural and Natural Resources Development Strategy in Nepal, Asian Profile, 47(1): 1–17.

Poudel, D.D., 2019b. Asta-Ja for grassroots-based economic development of Nepal. Telegraph Nepal, Retrieved from http://telegraphnepal.com/asta-ja-for-grassroots-based-economic-development-of-nepal/

Poudel, D.D., 2019c. Asta-Ja crusade for a fast-paced agro-jadibuti industrialization of Nepal. Telegraph Nepal, Retrieved from http://telegraphnepal.com/asta-ja-crusade-for-a-fast-paced-agro-jadibuti-industrialization-of-nepal/

Poudel, D.D., 2019d. Asian Brown Cloud, Telegraph Nepal, Available at: http://telegraphnepal.com/sian-brown-cloud/

Poudel, D.D., 2020. Eyes on the Border, Telegraph Nepal, Available at: http://telegraphnepal.com/nepal-eyes-on-the-border/

Poudel, D.D. 2021a. The Governance of Natural Resources in Nepal-7, Telegraph Nepal, Available at: http://telegraphnepal.com/the-governance-of-natural-resources-in-nepal-7/

Poudel, D.D., 2021b. Social Inclusion, Sustainable Development and Asta-Ja in Nepal, In: Medani P. Bhandari and Shvindina Hanna (Editors), Inequality-The Unbeatbale Challenge, River Publishers Series in Chemical, Environmental, and Energy Engineering, ISBN: 978-87-7022-623-3 e-ISBN: 978-87-7022-622-6 [In Press]

Poudel, D.D., Ferris, H., Klonsky, K., Horwath, W.R., Scow, K.M., van Bruggen, A.H.C., Lanini, W.T., Mitchell, J.P., and Temple, S.R., 2001. The Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems Project in California’s Sacramento Valley. Outlook on Agriculture 30(2): 109–116.

Poudel, D.D., Belbase, K., De Boevre, M., De Saeger, S., and Dahal, P., 2021. Climate Smart Dry Chain for Food and Nutrition Security in Nepal, Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment, 39(1–4): 131–150, doi: 10.13052/spee1048-4236.39147

Poudel, D.D., Cazan, A.M., Oguma, A.Y., and Klerks, P.L., 2020. Monitoring fish, benthic invertebrates and physicochemical properties of surface water for evaluating nonpoint source pollution control in coastal agricultural watersheds, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 75(2):177–190. doi:10.2489/jswc.75.2.177

Poudel, D.D., DeRamus, H.A., Thakur, R.P., and Singh, A., 2014. Feed, Nutrition, Animal Health and Changing Climate in the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal, pp.150-164, In: Samanta, A. K., Bhatta, R., Sejian, V., Kolte, A.P., Mlik, P.K., Sirohi, S.K. and Prasad, C.S. (Editors), Climate Resilient Livestock Feeding System for Global Food Security. Global Animal Nutrition Conference, April 20–22, 2014, Banglore, India, 286p.

Poudel, D.D., and Duex, T.W., 2017. Vanishing Springs in Nepalese Mountains: An Assessment of Water Sources, Farmer’s Perceptions, and Climate Change Adaptation, Mountain Research and Development, 37(1):35–46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-16-00039.1 http://telegraphnepal.com/asta-ja-crusade-for-a-fast-paced-agro-jadibuti-industrialization-of-nepal/

Poudel, D.D., Duex, T.W., and Poudel, R., 2020b. Drinking water security in the mid-hill region of Nepal, ASEJ – Scientific Journal of Bielsko-Biala School of Finance and Law, 24(1):44–48. DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.1351 (online)

Poudel, D.D., and Jeong, C.Y., 2009. Manual composite sampling in edge-of-field surface runoff for assessing nonpoint source pollution from agricultural lands and residential areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 64(5):324–335.

Poudel, D.D., Jeong, C.Y., and DeRamus, A., 2010. Surface runoff water quality from agricultural lands and residential areas. Outlook on Agriculture, 39(2):95–105.

Poudel, D.D., Lee, T., Srinivasan, R., Abbaspour, K.C., and Jeong, C.Y., 2013. Assessment of seasonal and spatial variation of surface water quality, identification of factors associated with water quality variability, and the modeling of critical nonpoint source pollution areas in an agricultural watershed, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 68(3): 155–171 www.swcs.org.

Poudel, D.D., Horwath, W.R., Mitchell, J. P., and Temple, S.R., 2001. Impacts of cropping systems on nitrogen storage and loss. Agricultural Systems 68:253–268.

Poudel, D.D., Horwath, W.R., Lanini, W.T., Temple, S.R., and van Bruggen, A.H.C., 2002. Comparison of soil N availability and leaching potential, crop yields and weeds in the organic, low-input, and conventional farming systems in northern California. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment 90: 125–127.

Poudel, D.D., Midmore, D.J., and West, L.T., 1999. Erosion and productivity of vegetable systems on sloping volcanic ash-derived Philippine soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 1366–1376.

Poudel, D.D., and West, L.T., 1999. Soil development and fertility characteristics of a volcanic slope in Mindanao, the Philippines. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1258–1273.

Poudel, D.D., Midmore, D.J., and Hargrove, W.L., 1998. An analysis of commercial vegetable farms in relation to sustainability in the uplands of southeast Asia, Agricultural Systems, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 107–128.

Poudel, D.D., Midmore, D.J., and West, L.T., 2000. Farmer participatory research to minimize soil erosion on steepland vegetable systems in the Philippines, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 79, Nos. 2–3, pp. 113–127.

Poudel, D.D., Nissen, T.M., and Midmore, D.J., 1999. Sustainability of commercial vegetable production under fallow systems in the uplands of Mindanao, the Philippines. Mountain Research and Development, 19(1): 41–50.

Poudel, D.D., Thakur, R.P., Duex, T., Blakewood, G., Singh, A., DeRamus, A., Chapagain, B., Acharya, K., Adhikari, S., Gramling, R.B., and Sharma, N., 2013. Adapting livestock production systems to climate change in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities, pp. 1362–1367, In: D.L. Michalk, G.D. Miller, W.B. Badgery, and K.M. Broadfoot (Editors), 2013 Proceedings of the 22nd International Grassland Congress, 15–19 September, 2013, Sydney, Australia, New South Wales Department of Primary Industry, Kite St., Orange New South Wales, Australia.

Poudel, D.D., and Wildman, R.E.C., 2001. Farming systems and nutritional quality of crops: A brief review, Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods, 3(4):85–92.

Poudel, D.D., Vincent, L.M., Anzalone, C., Huner, J., Wollard, D., Clement, T., DeRamus, A., and Blakewood, G., 2005. Hands-on activities and challenge tests in agricultural and environmental education, The Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 10–22.

Prasain, S.,2018. Agro products import bill crosses Rs200b. Kathmandu Post, Retrieved from https://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2018-08-07/agro-products-import-bill-crosses-rs200b.html

Rai, S.K., Ono, K., Yanagida, J-I., Kurokawa, M., and Rai, C.K., 2009. Status of drinking water contamination in Mountain Region, Nepal, Nepal Medical College Journal, 11(4):281–283.

Rämert, B., Bugg, R.L., Clark, M.S., Werner, M.R., McGuinn, R.P., Poudel, D.D., and Berry, A.M., 2000. Influence of Lumbricus terrestris inoculation on green manure disappearance and the decomposer community in a walnut orchard. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 33: 1509–1516.

Rupakheti, D., Adhikary, B., Praveen, P. S., Rupakheti, M., Kang, S., Mahata, K. S., Naja, M., Zhang, Q., Panday, A. K., and Lawrence, M. G., 2017. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(18): 11041–11063, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-11041-2017.

Sharma, B., 2019. Entrepreneurship for Prosperity, Asta-Ja Policy Briefs, December 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1 Page 4, Available at: http://www.astajausa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Asta-Ja-Policy-Briefs-Volume-1-Issue-1.pdf

Sharma, K.P., 2010. Climate change trends and instances of socio-economic effects in Nepal, Jalsrot Vikas Sanstha, Nepal, Nepal Water Partnership, Graphic and Print Solution Pvt. Ltd, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Shrestha, M.P., 2021. Nepal’s debt nearly triples in the last five and half years, Kathmandu Post, Published on March 2, 2021, Available at: https://kathmandupost.com/money/2021/03/02/nepal-s-debt-nearly-triples-in-the-last-five-and-half-years#:~:text=As%20of%20the%20last%20fiscal,and%20expenditure%20of%20the%20government.

Shrestha, R., 2012. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal: Good Public Health Intention Gone Bad, Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 4 (09), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=701

Shrestha, V.P., 2007. A concise geography of Nepal, Mandala Publications, Kantipath, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Shrestha, S., and Hisaki, Y., 2007. Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepali Himalayas. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007 (abstract); at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC13A0934S.

Sugden, F., de Silva, S., Clement, F., Maskey-Amatya, N., Ramesh, V., Philip, A., Bharati, L., 2014. A framework to understand gender and structural vulnerability to climate change in the Ganges River Basin: lessons from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 50p. (IWMI Working Paper 159) doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5337/2014.230. Available at: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/65351

Thapa, R., 2016. The Burning Issues of Conflict: A case study of Chitwan National Park, Nepal, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5(8): 542-547. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311811465_The_Burning_Issues_of_Conflict_A_Case_Study_of_Chitwan_National_Park_Nepal, Accessed on July 20, 2018.

UN (United Nations)., 2015. Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, A/RES/70/1, United Nations, Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf,

UNEP., 2018. Human Development Indices and Indicators 2018 Statistical Update. Available at www.hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-indices-indicators-2019-statistical-update (16 Nov 2019).

UNEP, 2019. Frontiers 2018/19. Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern. United Nations Environment Programme: Nairobi.

UNFCCC, 2007. Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries. Available at https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/impacts.pdf (24 Nov 2019)

United States Census Bureau, 2021. U.S. and World Population Clock, Available at: https://www.census.gov/popclock/world

Upreti, B.R., 2010. Addressing livelihood insecurity and the need for further research, pp. 257–271. In: Uperti, B R; and Müller-Böker, U. (Editors), Livelihoods insecurity and social conflict in Nepal,

South Asia Regional Coordination Office Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South Kathmandu, ISBN: 978-9937-8174-3-1. Available at: https://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/33888/2/Uperti_MuellerBoeker_Livelihoods_Insecurity_2010.pdf

US EPA., 1994. Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition, United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-823-B-94-005a, Office of Water (4305), USA.

Vaidya, S.R., and Labh, S. N., 2017. Determination of physico-chemical parameters and Water Quality Index (WQI) for drinking water available in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: A review, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(4):188–190.

Vivekananda International Foundation, 2019. Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam: Relevance of India’s Ancient Thinking to Contemporary Strategic Reality, VIF Seminar organized in collaboration with ICCR and ICPR at VIF, New Delhi 16–17 January 2019, Available at: https://www.vifindia.org/sites/default/files/Vasudhaiva-Kutumbakam-Conference-Proceedings.pdf

WaterAid Nepal, 2005. Water Laws in Nepal: Laws Relating to Drinking Water, Sanitation, Irrigation, Hydropower and Water Pollution, WaterAid Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal, Available at: https://washmatters.wateraid.org/publications/all/nepal

WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development)., 1987. Our Common Future, Oxford University Press.

Wang, X., Kinsland, G., Poudel, D., and Fench, A. 2019. Urban flood prediction under heavy precipitation, Journal of Hydrology, 577 (2019) 123984. 1–21.

Warner, N.R., Levy, J., Harpp, K., and Farruggia, F., 2008. Drinking water quality in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley: a survey and assessment of selected controlling site characteristics, Hydrogeology Journal, 16: 321–334. DOI 10.1007/s10040-007-0238-1

World Bank., 2015. Agricultural Risk Management in the Face of Climate Change. Washington, DC https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/22897 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”

WWF Nepal., 2013. Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape: Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation, Hariyo Ban Program, WWF Nepal, Baluwatar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Yang, X., Khanal, N.R., Koirala, H.L., and Nepal, P., 2014. People’s perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change in the Koshi River Basin, Nepal, pp. 129–144, In: Vaidya, R.A. and Sharma, E. (eds) (2014) Research insights on climate and water in the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Kathmandu: ICIMOD.

Published
2021-06-15
Section
Articles