Passenger Transport Modal Mix by Incorporating Travel Behaviour: A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

  • Anita Prajapati Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Nawraj Bhattarai Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Tri Ratna Bajracharya Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal
Keywords: Travel behaviour, TIMES model, travel time, energy, emissions

Abstract

Most of the travel demand in developing countries is fulfilled by private vehicles dominated by 2-wheelers due to their affordability, accessibility, and availability, which has direct effects on energy, economy, and environment. To achieve sustainable transport, policies such as electric mobility and mass transport options have been implemented which are mainly focused on technology shift based on technology cost and environmental externalities. Transport modelling in this study was carried out using an additional attribute: travel time which shows the impact of travel behaviour on the optimal modal mix and the consequent impact on energy and emissions. The scenario-based approach using the travel time budget (TTB) concept was used using a bottom-up TIMES modelling framework. The scenario analysis shows the trade-off between the speed of the vehicle, available travel time, and sustainability in transport. The result suggests that the investment in rapid transit would be the potential future mode in Kathmandu valley.

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Author Biographies

Anita Prajapati, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal

Anita Prajapati is a Ph.D. scholar in the Institute of Engineering (IOE), Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal under the scholarship of a Norwegian Program EnPe (Energy and Petroleum). She received her BE in Mechanical Engineering and M.Sc. in Renewable Energy Engineering from the IOE. She is presently working as an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aeropsace Engineering in the Pulchowk Campus, IOE, TU having teaching experience since 2018. She is also working as Research Associate in Centre for Energy Studies, IOE, TU. She has presented papers at national conferences. Her area of interest includes energy modeling and systems planning analysis.

Nawraj Bhattarai, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal

Nawraj Bhattarai is the former Head of Department of Mechanical and Aeropsace Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. His field of specialization is energy planning, renewable energy Engineering and energy policy. He did his Doctoral Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria in the year of 2015. He has published many research papers in National and International journals.

Tri Ratna Bajracharya, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal

Tri Ratna Bajracharya is the former Dean of Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. He is a permanent full Professor of Department of Mechanical and Aeropsace Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University. His field of specialization is energy systems; especially renewable energy technology. He was the Director for Centre for Energy Studies (CES) for more than 5 years. He did his Doctoral Degree in Engineering from Tribhuvan University in year 2007 in Hydropower technology. Prof. Bajracharya is well-known expert in the field of energy and climate change and has published many research papers in International Journals. He has served as the Chief Editor of Journal of the Institute of Engineering, ISSN 1810-3383.

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Published
2021-12-18
Section
Planning and design for sustainability