Power Generation Sources and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in BRICS Countries: Static and Dynamic Panel Regression

  • Liton Chandra Voumik Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9612-7350
  • Md. Shaddam Hossain Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814
  • Md. Azharul Islam Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814
  • Abidur Rahaman Department of Information & Communication Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814
Keywords: BRICS, climate change, CO2 emissions, electricity production sources, energy consumption


Purpose: The threat of global warming has escalated as a result of industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and lifestyle changes in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). The amount of electricity generated by various sources is directly influenced by their respective carbon dioxide (CO2

) emissions. This study’s primary goal is to determine which sources are bad for the environment and which are not.

Methodology: Examining the impact of different energy generation sources on CO2

emissions using data from the BRICS. To analyze the data, pooled OLS and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) are used, as well as Quantile Regression (QR).

Findings: We found that coal and gas power generation had a positive and large influence on CO2

emissions regardless of the method used. As compared to other emissions, coal-fired energy production has a more significant impact. In all regression models, hydroelectric and renewable energy generation can reduce CO2


Originality: Identifying an empirical link between CO2

emissions and energy production sources is the study’s most significant accomplishment. To obtain solid results, the paper used a combination of QR and GMM techniques. The conclusions presented in this article have important environmental policy consequences. CO2 emissions can be reduced by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and promoting the development of alternative energy sources such as hydroelectric, wind, and solar power.


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Author Biographies

Liton Chandra Voumik, Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814

Liton Chandra Voumik is an assistant professor in the department of economics at Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. The fields of environmental economics, development economics, and labor economics are the primary topics of Liton’s study. Liton earned a master’s degree from Middle Tennessee State University in the United States. He earned a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Chittagong.

Md. Shaddam Hossain, Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814

Md. Shaddam Hossain is working as a Lecturer of Economics at Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. He received his MSS and BSS degree in Economics from Comilla University. His research interest areas are Environment and Natural Resources Economics, International Trade, and Development Economics.

Md. Azharul Islam, Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814

Md. Azharul Islam is a former student in the department of economics at Noakhali Science and Technology University. The fields of environmental economics, development economics, are the primary topics of Azharul’s study. Azharul earned a master’s degree from Noakhali Science and Technology University as well as his bachelor’s degree in Economics.

Abidur Rahaman, Department of Information & Communication Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh-3814

Abidur Rahaman, currently, works as an Associate Professor in the dept. of Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), NSTU, Bangladesh. He obtained PhD degree from the Kyung Hee University, Seoul. Previously, he finished Bachelor and MSc in Applied Physics from the Dhaka University, Bangladesh. Earlier, he published scientific articles regarding health and environmental impact issue e.g. effect of cell phone radiation on human body, Lightning protection practices and protection measures, etc. Dr. Rahaman feels a profound interest to study and research on adverse effect of pollution to human and environment.


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