Exploring Current Technologies, Applications, and Challenges in the Metaverse: A Comprehensive Survey


  • Sushma Malik Department of Computer Applications, Institute of Innovation in Technology & Management, New Delhi, India
  • Anamika Rana Department of Computer Applications, Maharaja Surajmal Institute, New Delhi, India




Metaverse, virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, blockchain, spatial computing, artificial intelligence, gaming, socializing, education, commerce, entertainment, interoperability, privacy and security, content moderation, digital ownership, accessibility


A brand-new class of Internet applications and social media platforms called Metaverse integrates many cutting-edge technology. The word “metaverse,” which was originally coined almost 20 years ago to represent a speculative virtual environment, describes a world in which users of augmented reality technology only experience psychological effects. Virtual world-based computer games were the first use of the Metaverse. Businesses that offered gaming services were vying with one another to give customers more unique experiences. The Metaverse, a concept popularized by science fiction, is rapidly becoming a tangible reality with the advancement of virtual and augmented reality technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the current state of the Metaverse, focusing on the technologies driving its development, diverse applications across industries, and the challenges hindering its widespread adoption. Through an in-depth examination of existing literature, industry reports, and technological advancements, this survey provides insights into the evolving landscape of the Metaverse and offers perspectives on its potential impact on society, economy, and human interaction.


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Author Biographies

Sushma Malik, Department of Computer Applications, Institute of Innovation in Technology & Management, New Delhi, India

Sushma Malik is working as Associate Professor at Institute of Innovation in Technology and Management (IINTM), Affiliated to GGSIPU, New Delhi. She has been sharing her experience and expertise in the field of academics for the past 13 years. She has a strong inclination towards both teaching and research work. Her areas of interest include Data mining, E-commerce and software engineering. She has numerous research papers published in national as well as international journals. In addition, she has also presented research papers in conferences and has attended multiple seminars. She has authored books on E-Commerce and Digital Marketing for BBA/BCOM and BCA students of GGSIPU. She also play a role of Reviewer in a number of Journals (Listed in Resume), and three Patents.

Anamika Rana, Department of Computer Applications, Maharaja Surajmal Institute, New Delhi, India

Anamika Rana currently serves as an Associate Professor at the Maharaja Surajmal Institute, affiliated with GGSIPU, New Delhi. With over 14 years of experience in academia, she has demonstrated a strong commitment to both teaching and research. Her academic contributions extend beyond the classroom, with numerous research papers published in esteemed national and international journals. Additionally, she actively participates in academic conferences, presenting her research findings and engaging in scholarly discourse.


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How to Cite

Malik, S., & Rana, A. (2024). Exploring Current Technologies, Applications, and Challenges in the Metaverse: A Comprehensive Survey. Journal of Graphic Era University, 12(01), 105–124. https://doi.org/10.13052/jgeu0975-1416.1217